How to install software in Linux

Operating systems based on kernel of Linux use different package managers that allow you to download and install the available programs. In addition, there are individual packages where already stored applications. They only need to start using a certain tool to do the extraction and compilation, after which will be available to use. Today we would like to address the subject of installation on the example of the most popular distributions in detail tell about each installation option and show in practice how it all works.

Install programs in Linux

Of course, at this time, there is a lot of variety of distributions, however, some of them are based on existing platforms and have the same backbone, but with the addition of some features from the developers. Then we will touch the subject of three popular branches, where the operation of the installation is different, and you, based on the information provided, will be able to find information that is suitable under the used distribution.

Method 1: the package Manager and official repositories

The most frequently used method — the package Manager. Such a component is present in every distribution allows you to download and install software from official repositories. For example, in Debian/Ubuntu this tool supports apt (Advanced Packaging Tool). All directories are taken from the official Internet sources. If none exist, you can download the package that is on the media. In RedHat, CentOS and Fedora this Manager is yum (yellow dog Updater, Modified) and works around the same principle. The third popular package Manager is considered to be pacman — a special tool distribution Arch Linux. Now let’s examine in detail how the management of such managers.

Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint

As we have said above, Debian and based on it platforms the installation directory from the official repositories is made through the tool apt. The whole procedure will not take much time, but for example we’ll take the popular browser Mozilla Firefox.

  • Open the menu and run “Terminal”. This can be done also by pressing a hot key Ctrl + Alt + T.
  • First, make sure that all installed packages are updated. Enter sudo apt-get update and press Enter.
  • All of the action via utility apt made on behalf of the superuser, so you have to specify the password for this account. Please note that the input so the characters in the string are not displayed.
  • After successful completion of the upgrade of libraries, type sudo apt-get install firefox. The argument install is responsible for installing and firefox indicates the name of the package to download.
  • Such installation will be made only if the computer has an active Internet connection.
  • Upon completion of the transaction will display a new input line. If no error occurred, the browser will be available to run through the icon in the menu bar.
  • As you can see, apt is simply realized. Another is to consider that in the latest version of Ubuntu to write apt-get , not necessarily, you can just cut to the apt, and then enter install. Here are some examples of popular applications that are available for installation through the official store:

    sudo apt install vlc — video player.
    sudo apt install gnome-music — music player.
    sudo apt install gimp — graphics editor.
    sudo apt install gparted — FOR partitioning hard drive.

    RedHat, CentOS and Fedora

    In distributions where it is based on the RedHat, the main Manager acts yum. It works similar to the already considered, but here the directory of the RPM format. Software installation from the official repositories is virtually identical and looks like this:

  • Start the console by any convenient method.
  • Update the list of system repositories using sudo yum update.
  • Confirm by entering the password root access.
  • Accept the agreement with the addition of new files, putting a variant of y.
  • At the end of the update list sudo yum install thunderbird and activate it. We took an example of the email client Thunderbird, you can replace the last expression in the string for any other need.
  • Here, you will also need to specify the option yto start downloading.
  • Wait for it to complete downloading and unpacking the components of the application.
  • By analogy with the previous package Manager here are some examples of using yum to install certain programs:

    sudo yum install java — java components.
    sudo yum install chromium — browser Chromium.
    sudo yum install gparted — management program drives.

    Arch Linux, Chakra, Manjaro

    It remains to consider the last the third branch of the distributions, the basis of which was taken by Arch Linux. Here Manager is installed pacman. It works with batches of TAR formats, and download components is made through a designated websites through FTP or HTTP. We took the example of the Manjaro distribution with a standard graphical interface and I want to demonstrate the procedure of using pacman.

  • Open the menu and go to work in the classic console.
  • Install, for example, the popular open source browser Chromium. To do this, type sudo pacman -S chromium. The argument -S is responsible for what the team needs to conduct the download and installation of the program.
  • Confirm the authenticity of the root-account by typing password.
  • Take component installation, choosing the option y.
  • Wait for it to complete downloading: to successfully complete this procedure, you will need an Internet connection.
  • If in the console, a new line of input, then the installation was successful and you can go to work in the application.
  • Examples of adding popular programs are as follows:

    sudo pacman -S firefox
    sudo pacman -S gimp
    sudo pacman -S vlc

    Now you know how is software installation on three different platforms Linux using the official repositories using the built-in Manager. I want to note that because of the wrong input of the installation package on the screen in most cases, a tooltip appears with the correct version, then simply rewrite the command after correcting the error.

    Method 2: package Manager and a custom store

    In addition to the official repositories of various applications, there are also custom. This option is the best solution for those users who wish to obtain a specific version of an application, or install them in the amount of several pieces on the computer. This method of installation is slightly different and is considered more difficult, so we offer details to deal with this issue. If you don’t have the address of the repository, you first need to find him. The easiest way to do this through a special website, and the whole procedure looks like this:

    Go on the official Launchpad website

  • Click on the link above to the main Launchpad page and in the search box, type the name of the software. For convenience, you can add in this line, another PPA, which means the user store.
  • In the results look for the appropriate option and click on the appropriate link.
  • Look through the packages and select the appropriate.
  • Go to the page.
  • Once on the PPA page, below you will see the commands which make installation.
  • Now you know about the most popular method of getting links to a custom repository FOR the required version. It remains only to deal with the intricacies of their installations in different distributions. Let’s start with all in order.

    Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint

    You are already familiar with the standard package Manager, which installs on these platforms. Consider the method of installation of the software also involves the use of this tool, but with the advanced performance of additional actions. Above we have already seen an example of adding Chromium to the system, now let’s look at how this is done through the user repository.

  • Find the website link to the repository, then start the console and paste it there. We take for example the latest version of this web browser. sudo add-apt-repository ppa:saiarcot895/chromium-dev.
  • Confirm the action by entering your password.
  • Next, review the list of packages that will be included in the system, then press Enter.
  • At the end of the procedure to update system libraries: sudo apt-get update.
  • Use the familiar command to install the browser from added repository sudo apt install chromium-browser.
  • Take add new components by selecting option D.
  • After installation look in applications menu. There should be added a new icon and run the browser.
  • As you can see, nothing complicated in the use of such vaults is not. You just need to find a suitable version on the above website and paste the command into the console. After adding the directories will only have to install the new version of the already familiar option — using apt install.

    RedHat, CentOS and Fedora

    For these operating systems is better to use storage http://mirror.lihnidos.org and http://li.nux.ro there you will find more suitable directories formats RPM, as to install them directly from the console without downloading it from the website, it runs in a few steps:

  • For example I would like to take components of the Ruby programming language. First you need to find a suitable bag, and then in the console enter about the address wget http://mirror.lihnidos.org/CentOS/7/updates/x86_64/Packages/ruby-2.0.0.648-34.el7_6.x86_64.rpm. The link will change depending on which repository you are using. After you enter the enable command.
  • Further, the computer the downloaded package will only install it the usual way, so enter sudo yum install + name_package.
  • Enable root access by entering the password from the main account.
  • Wait for completion of test scenarios and compatibility.
  • Confirm the installation by selecting the appropriate option.
  • Arch, Chakra, Manjaro

    Most user repository for Arch Linux keeps keeps only files TAR.GZ and their method of installation the system is slightly different. It should be noted that all the necessary directories you can find on the website aur.archlinux.org. To access this repository on the computer running Manjaro will first need to run sudo pacman -S base-devel yaourt — so will add additional components.

  • Priority download found the package in home folder using curl -L-O https://dl.discordapp.net/apps/linux/0.0.9/discord-0.0.9.tar.gz. Link to download the archive TAR.GZ is always indicated on the program page when viewing the site AUR.
  • Unzip the downloaded file in the same folder using tar-xvf discord-0.0.9.tar.gzwhere discord-0.0.9.tar.gz — the name of the directory.
  • Use makepkg -srito collect and install the program. Upon completion of this procedure, you can go to work with the software.
  • Method 3: install the DEB packages

    The format of the DEB files used for software distribution and is the standard data type operating systems based on Debian. In such distributions the default tools installation software this format both through the GUI and through the Terminal. Detail as possible all the methods for adding DEB packages painted in our other article, which you can find at the following link. As for other types of platforms where no native tools installing the DEB files, the installation process is slightly more complicated.

    See also: Installing DEB packages in Debian / Ubuntu / Mint

    RedHat, CentOS and Fedora

    As you know, in RedHat, and based on it platforms package Manager works with the RPM format. Other formats are not installed with standard tools. Corrected this problem with a simple conversion with additional console application. The whole operation takes just a couple minutes.

  • Install the utility for conversion using yum install alien.
  • Start the conversion process by typing sudo alien --to-rpm package.deb, where package.deb — the name of the package.
  • Upon completion of the conversion, the new package will be saved in the same folder and it will only unzip using sudo yum localinstall package.rpmwhere package.rpm — name the same file, but now the RPM format.
  • Arch Linux, Chakra, Manjaro

    Distributions on Arch Lixux used a pacmanthat was originally written to install applications with extension TAR.GZ. Therefore, to manage DEB packages you will need to download an additional tool and to implement the add files and directories directly through it.

  • To download and install the utility, use yaourt -S dpkg.
  • While adding will need several times to confirm the addition of new objects and enter the root password.
  • It remains only to specify sudo dpkg-i name_package.deb and wait for the end of decompression. During installation, you may see a warning about some missing dependencies, but this will not prevent the software to work correctly.
  • Method 4: Installing RPM packages

    From the descriptions above, you already know that RPM packages are used by default in RedHat, CentOS and other similar distributions. With regards to unpacking, launching to be available directly from the file Manager. Simply open the storage folder of program and run it by double-clicking the left mouse button. The installation starts, and after it is finished to find the app through the menu or open it via typing the appropriate command in the console. In addition, the search software is perfect it’s the standard FOR “Installation of applications”.

    To unpack the RPM packages in the Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint are commonly used additional tools, but only in those cases when you are unable to find the same DEB package. Detailed instructions on this topic you will find the article on.

    See also: Installing RPM packages in Ubuntu / Debian / Mint

    OS Arch Linux, Chakra, Manjaro, and the like while normally running no utility that would convert RPM packages to a supported format TAR.GZ. Therefore, we can only advise to search the same program in a supported extension. This is best done on the official source aur.archlinux.org where there are links to download the most popular apps from the developer’s site or mirror files TAR.GZ.

    Method 5: install the programs in the archives TAR.GZ

    Standard start with distributions on Debian. In this case TAR.GZ is established by compiling the contents of the archive to the new DEB package. The whole procedure is divided into four simple steps and familiarize yourself with them you can separate our material at the following link.

    Read more: setting the file format TAR.GZ in Ubuntu / Debian / Mint

    RedHat add via compiling config file looks a bit different:

  • First, using the console add-in development tools: sudo yum groupinstall "Development tools".
  • Then unpack the existing archive using tar-zxf archive_name.tar.gz.
  • At the end of the unzipping move in ready folder using cd archive_name , run the following commands alternately:

    ./configure
    make
    sudo make install
    .

    You can then run the application and interact with it.

  • As you know, the package Manager pacman by default, works fine with format files TAR.GZ so when using Arch, Manjaro, or Chakra you need to perform a manual of Method 2.

    Today you were introduced to five different methods of installing software in the operational system on the basis of kernel Linux. As you can see, for each distribution you want to use any method. We also recommend that you take the time to search for the required format for the OS, so the installation was fast and easy.

    Source: lumpics.ru

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