Operating systems based on kernel of Linux use different package managers that allow you to download and install the available programs. In addition, there are individual packages where already stored applications. They only need to start using a certain tool to do the extraction and compilation, after which will be available to use. Today we would like to address the subject of installation on the example of the most popular distributions in detail tell about each installation option and show in practice how it all works.
Install programs in Linux
Of course, at this time, there is a lot of variety of distributions, however, some of them are based on existing platforms and have the same backbone, but with the addition of some features from the developers. Then we will touch the subject of three popular branches, where the operation of the installation is different, and you, based on the information provided, will be able to find information that is suitable under the used distribution.
Method 1: the package Manager and official repositories
The most frequently used method — the package Manager. Such a component is present in every distribution allows you to download and install software from official repositories. For example, in Debian/Ubuntu this tool supports apt (Advanced Packaging Tool). All directories are taken from the official Internet sources. If none exist, you can download the package that is on the media. In RedHat, CentOS and Fedora this Manager is yum (yellow dog Updater, Modified) and works around the same principle. The third popular package Manager is considered to be pacman — a special tool distribution Arch Linux. Now let’s examine in detail how the management of such managers.
Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint
As we have said above, Debian and based on it platforms the installation directory from the official repositories is made through the tool apt. The whole procedure will not take much time, but for example we’ll take the popular browser Mozilla Firefox.
sudo apt-get updateand press Enter.
sudo apt-get install firefox. The argument install is responsible for installing and firefox indicates the name of the package to download.
As you can see, apt is simply realized. Another is to consider that in the latest version of Ubuntu to write
apt-get , not necessarily, you can just cut to the
apt, and then enter
install. Here are some examples of popular applications that are available for installation through the official store:
sudo apt install vlc — video player.
sudo apt install gnome-music — music player.
sudo apt install gimp — graphics editor.
sudo apt install gparted — FOR partitioning hard drive.
RedHat, CentOS and Fedora
In distributions where it is based on the RedHat, the main Manager acts yum. It works similar to the already considered, but here the directory of the RPM format. Software installation from the official repositories is virtually identical and looks like this:
sudo yum update.
sudo yum install thunderbirdand activate it. We took an example of the email client Thunderbird, you can replace the last expression in the string for any other need.
By analogy with the previous package Manager here are some examples of using yum to install certain programs:
sudo yum install java — java components.
sudo yum install chromium — browser Chromium.
sudo yum install gparted — management program drives.
Arch Linux, Chakra, Manjaro
It remains to consider the last the third branch of the distributions, the basis of which was taken by Arch Linux. Here Manager is installed pacman. It works with batches of TAR formats, and download components is made through a designated websites through FTP or HTTP. We took the example of the Manjaro distribution with a standard graphical interface and I want to demonstrate the procedure of using pacman.
sudo pacman -S chromium. The argument -S is responsible for what the team needs to conduct the download and installation of the program.
Examples of adding popular programs are as follows:
sudo pacman -S firefox
sudo pacman -S gimp
sudo pacman -S vlc
Now you know how is software installation on three different platforms Linux using the official repositories using the built-in Manager. I want to note that because of the wrong input of the installation package on the screen in most cases, a tooltip appears with the correct version, then simply rewrite the command after correcting the error.
Method 2: package Manager and a custom store
In addition to the official repositories of various applications, there are also custom. This option is the best solution for those users who wish to obtain a specific version of an application, or install them in the amount of several pieces on the computer. This method of installation is slightly different and is considered more difficult, so we offer details to deal with this issue. If you don’t have the address of the repository, you first need to find him. The easiest way to do this through a special website, and the whole procedure looks like this:
Go on the official Launchpad website
PPA, which means the user store.
Now you know about the most popular method of getting links to a custom repository FOR the required version. It remains only to deal with the intricacies of their installations in different distributions. Let’s start with all in order.
Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint
You are already familiar with the standard package Manager, which installs on these platforms. Consider the method of installation of the software also involves the use of this tool, but with the advanced performance of additional actions. Above we have already seen an example of adding Chromium to the system, now let’s look at how this is done through the user repository.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:saiarcot895/chromium-dev.
sudo apt-get update.
sudo apt install chromium-browser.
As you can see, nothing complicated in the use of such vaults is not. You just need to find a suitable version on the above website and paste the command into the console. After adding the directories will only have to install the new version of the already familiar option — using apt install.
RedHat, CentOS and Fedora
For these operating systems is better to use storage http://mirror.lihnidos.org and http://li.nux.ro there you will find more suitable directories formats RPM, as to install them directly from the console without downloading it from the website, it runs in a few steps:
wget http://mirror.lihnidos.org/CentOS/7/updates/x86_64/Packages/ruby-184.108.40.2068-34.el7_6.x86_64.rpm. The link will change depending on which repository you are using. After you enter the enable command.
sudo yum install + name_package.
Arch, Chakra, Manjaro
Most user repository for Arch Linux keeps keeps only files TAR.GZ and their method of installation the system is slightly different. It should be noted that all the necessary directories you can find on the website aur.archlinux.org. To access this repository on the computer running Manjaro will first need to run
sudo pacman -S base-devel yaourt — so will add additional components.
curl -L-O https://dl.discordapp.net/apps/linux/0.0.9/discord-0.0.9.tar.gz. Link to download the archive TAR.GZ is always indicated on the program page when viewing the site AUR.
tar-xvf discord-0.0.9.tar.gzwhere discord-0.0.9.tar.gz — the name of the directory.
makepkg -srito collect and install the program. Upon completion of this procedure, you can go to work with the software.
Method 3: install the DEB packages
The format of the DEB files used for software distribution and is the standard data type operating systems based on Debian. In such distributions the default tools installation software this format both through the GUI and through the Terminal. Detail as possible all the methods for adding DEB packages painted in our other article, which you can find at the following link. As for other types of platforms where no native tools installing the DEB files, the installation process is slightly more complicated.
See also: Installing DEB packages in Debian / Ubuntu / Mint
RedHat, CentOS and Fedora
As you know, in RedHat, and based on it platforms package Manager works with the RPM format. Other formats are not installed with standard tools. Corrected this problem with a simple conversion with additional console application. The whole operation takes just a couple minutes.
yum install alien.
sudo alien --to-rpm package.deb, where package.deb — the name of the package.
sudo yum localinstall package.rpmwhere package.rpm — name the same file, but now the RPM format.
Arch Linux, Chakra, Manjaro
Distributions on Arch Lixux used a pacmanthat was originally written to install applications with extension TAR.GZ. Therefore, to manage DEB packages you will need to download an additional tool and to implement the add files and directories directly through it.
yaourt -S dpkg.
sudo dpkg-i name_package.deband wait for the end of decompression. During installation, you may see a warning about some missing dependencies, but this will not prevent the software to work correctly.
Method 4: Installing RPM packages
From the descriptions above, you already know that RPM packages are used by default in RedHat, CentOS and other similar distributions. With regards to unpacking, launching to be available directly from the file Manager. Simply open the storage folder of program and run it by double-clicking the left mouse button. The installation starts, and after it is finished to find the app through the menu or open it via typing the appropriate command in the console. In addition, the search software is perfect it’s the standard FOR “Installation of applications”.
To unpack the RPM packages in the Debian, Ubuntu and Linux Mint are commonly used additional tools, but only in those cases when you are unable to find the same DEB package. Detailed instructions on this topic you will find the article on.
See also: Installing RPM packages in Ubuntu / Debian / Mint
OS Arch Linux, Chakra, Manjaro, and the like while normally running no utility that would convert RPM packages to a supported format TAR.GZ. Therefore, we can only advise to search the same program in a supported extension. This is best done on the official source aur.archlinux.org where there are links to download the most popular apps from the developer’s site or mirror files TAR.GZ.
Method 5: install the programs in the archives TAR.GZ
Standard start with distributions on Debian. In this case TAR.GZ is established by compiling the contents of the archive to the new DEB package. The whole procedure is divided into four simple steps and familiarize yourself with them you can separate our material at the following link.
Read more: setting the file format TAR.GZ in Ubuntu / Debian / Mint
RedHat add via compiling config file looks a bit different:
sudo yum groupinstall "Development tools".
cd archive_name, run the following commands alternately:
sudo make install
You can then run the application and interact with it.
As you know, the package Manager pacman by default, works fine with format files TAR.GZ so when using Arch, Manjaro, or Chakra you need to perform a manual of Method 2.
Today you were introduced to five different methods of installing software in the operational system on the basis of kernel Linux. As you can see, for each distribution you want to use any method. We also recommend that you take the time to search for the required format for the OS, so the installation was fast and easy.