Before moving on to the pros and cons, you need to decide what Linux is. This family of operating systems, like Windows or MacOS. The operating system is responsible for the interaction between the software and the computer hardware. Unlike Windows, where there is only one main platform, and it has several versions, depending on the time in which they were produced, in Linux there are many branches, distributions based on Linux kernel.
This includes such well-known distributions, such as Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, CentOS, Debian, and many others less well known. Most of them are totally free and distributed with open source, this means that they are more convenient for software developers. But we need to understand what it all means for the casual user. In this article we have gathered the pros and cons of Linux that will help beginners to decide whether they need this operating system.
The Advantages Of Linux
The Linux kernel and core components that comprise the system, and many programs distributed with open-source absolutely for free. You can download a Linux distribution such as Ubuntu, without paying a penny, and install it on your computer completely legally. In our reality, where Windows can be downloaded and installed for free, it may seem that there is no difference, but it is worth remembering that the pirate Assembly may not be safe, and the key to the operating system at any time can become invalid. Here Linux a distinct advantage.
Given the open source code, with certain knowledge you can change in the system whatever, and the way you want. There are even graphical environment that you can customize by simply generating the configuration files in a suitable programming language. So it turned out a huge number of Linux distributions. People take the basic components, connecting them as needed, set up, and getting distribution.
3. Easy to install
Popular Linux distributions are very easy to install. The same you can also run Ubuntu from a flash drive without installation and test almost all features of the operating system. And the installation of Ubuntu is no more difficult in Windows, just click Next. Also, the system is fast enough even on older hardware.
Due to the low popularity of Linux desktop and system architecture, to catch a virus in Linux is difficult. If Windows viruses is focused on the defeat of the users and catch them anywhere, even browsing sites on the Internet, most viruses for Linux aimed at servers, and is designed for manual use against selected targets and specific programmes.
The creation of a virus of a different type for Linux is now simply not profitable. And thanks to the variety of Linux distributions and configurations will find it difficult to create viruses that will work everywhere. Here at once recall the history, when many of the viruses for Windows immediately stopped working, if you move the system disk D.
5. Undemanding to resources
Linux is very lightweight. You can run Linux without a graphical environment on the server with a very weak CPU and 100 megabytes of RAM, and everything will work. As for home use Linux there are many desktop environments as demanding, and very lightweight, from which you can choose what you need. From personal observation I can say that feel Linux is smarter than Windows on the same dual core Athlon and a hard disk drive.
6. The hardware drivers
The Linux kernel contains all available drivers of hardware which can run Linux. Thus, if the hardware will work in Linux, it is likely that it will work out of the box. You can also try to install proprietary drivers, only for graphics cards, and some printers and Wi-Fi adapters, but not all.
Although in recent years developers have started to remove kernel support for the old motherboard and processor architectures, is still a lot of old equipment, and it’s all supported out of the box, you don’t need to install anything extra.
7. Easy to use command line
Using the terminal Linux you can do everything and much more than in the graphical interface. Through the history of commands, autocompletion of commands and paths to files, search history, operations, lean teams, and convenient hot keys, terminal use is very convenient, if used. And if necessary, you can write entire scripts in Bash to automate actions. In recent versions of Windows, Microsoft is also trying to make a normal terminal, but in Linux it’s been like this for a very long time.
8. Convenient installation programs
As such, the Windows app store appeared only in Windows 8 and install from there-not all, but only a few popular programs. All other programs you must install, downloading executable files from the Internet. In Linux most programs can be installed via the built-in app center or through the terminal from the repositories distibutive.
You almost do not need to download the software packages in the Internet, how to install the newest version and for programs that are not in the repositories, and the repositories are so many. And to install what is not, sushestvujut your repositories that you can connect to the system. Also recently there generic formats snap flatpack packages and their repositories, which also has most of the popular programs that are not in the official repositories, such as Viber, Telegram, Visual Studio Code, Atom, and many others.
9. Large selection of graphic environments
Unlike Windows, where there is only Explorer, in Linux there are many desktop environments. Is Gnome, KDE, LXDE, LXQT, XFCE, Enlightenment, and many others. They all look different, consume different amounts of resources and differently behave. Everyone can choose what they like best. There are also several environments based on the existing ones, for example, and Panteon Cinnamon is based on Gnome.
10. – Designed file system
In Linux there is no such thing as drive C and drive D. There is one solid file system that starts with the root /. All of the drives, external devices, virtual file system, must be connected (mounted) to it. Because here connect a virtual file system with the kernel config, you can interact with the operating system kernel by simply editing the file, as with the conventional configuration.
11. Easy system of storing settings
In Windows, all settings are stored in the registry. Perhaps initially, from the performance point of view, it was a good decision. However, with the accumulation in the registry vast number of entries from different programs, this claim becomes questionable, and the complex structure of registry cleaning eliminates the possibility of unnecessary records. In Linux all configuration programs are stored in the folder /etc/. Each program creates a file and stores the settings there. You can open the settings file of the desired program and change the values that interest you, as well as in this catalog is easy to navigate.
12. Support for many architectures
Since the kernel and operating system components of Linux are distributed under a free license, they were ported to many different architectures, not just x86 and ARM, but also such lesser-known architecture, like MIPS and PowerPC. And it is important to note that on ARM you get the same Linux and the same program as on the x86 architecture. For example, on the Raspberry Pi you will get almost the same Linux and the same program.
13. The lack of data collection
Windows gathers statistics and data about computer usage and sends it all to Microsoft. In Linux, such behavior is not, was a few years ago Ubuntu problem with sending search queries to Amazon, but it was quickly resolved. Also, any anonymous data collection can be easily disabled in the settings.
14. A good support community
There are plenty of forums and communities where you can ask questions about our problems and get solutions. Of course, no one here will solve your problems for you. Such support you can get by paid subscription to one of the Enterprice-distributions, but for free you can tell in which direction to look to solve your problem.
15. A large number of free programs
For Linux there are a huge number of free and the free programs that you can use and who will be able to replace most of the programs from Windows. Moreover, for each program that needs to be replaced, there are several analogues.
Our article reveals the pros and cons Linux pros, we understand, and now move to the downside.
1. The complexity of development
Anyway, Linux is very different from Windows, so at first it will be difficult to master and get used to the new concept of the operating system. It’s the same file system, repositories, packages, security policy, where ever it is necessary to enter the password for administrative actions. Some things are still best done through the terminal and so on.
2. The lack of versions of popular programs
This is the main drawback, because of which many users still can’t completely switch to Linux. For this operating system Microsoft released their office, and Adobe your Photoshop. There is also no other specific programs such as Compass, AutoCAD, KeyCollector and others. This list could go on. For many programs, it has counterparts and can even attempt to run them in a layer of compatibility with Windows but it will not replace a full launch of the program.
In fact, we do not work with the operating system and programs that run within it, and if it was a broad program, Linux would be a lot more users.
3. The lack of support for some equipment
Hardware drivers for Linux are developed either by the manufacturer or enthusiasts. Throughout the development of Linux, many hardware manufacturers didn’t want to release drivers for that operating system, and enthusiasts do their drivers not for all equipment.
Basically, it was the network adapters and printers. In recent years the situation has improved. For printers there is a unified standard, but with a choice of Wi-Fi adapters still need to be careful and to watch whether they are supported by the operating system.
4. Lack of support for games
Many years Linux was the problem with the games. All the most interesting games released for Windows, and for Linux there were only a few free games, plus the ability to run games from the Windows compatibility layer. But lately everything has changed. Appeared platform Steam for Linux and then began to appear many interesting and popular games such as Metro Exodus, XCOM, CS: GO and many others.
The compatibility layer also beginning to work much better. Added support for Vulkan API, which greatly accelerated the work of games through Wine, we also implemented support for DirectX 11 and now in Linux, you can play many Windows games, although some still can not.
In this article we have gathered the pros and cons of the Linux operating system. I found a lot of pluses in this system and only a few cons I didn’t get to use it. In a pinch, if you need a program from Windows, you can keep it second system. What are the other advantages of Linux, you know what cons have I missed? Write in the comments!