Ending our long conversation about graphic environments GNU/Linux, I would like the last article in this series describe just two from among the relative newcomers of this “sandbox” — Cinnamon and Budgie. In common between them only that both are somehow based on the elements of GNOME 3. But the first shell are more inclined to traditional since early versions of UNIX oriented DE design solutions, while the second took on the challenge to create something new.
So, we have two graphical environment, so I’ll talk about them in each section at a time, separating “* * *”. Thus can and not to stray from the normal rhythm, and to tell about all gradually.
Cinnamon (eng. “cinnamon”) was born, as quite a large number of modern desktop environment, in connection with disagreement of the user with the philosophy of interaction proposed in GNOME 3. Accordingly, its roots reach out time first subversi third branch already familiar to us GNOME.
But the main feature of this graphical environment is that it arose within the team of developers of a single distribution. Called (called), this project is Linux Mint. Even then he was quite popular among users, but to present the prevalence was still far away. In Linux Mint 13, which appeared in late spring of 2012 year, was available as the first big release of Cinnamon is version 1.4.
Interestingly, and for the product in the GNU/Linux world to have the first version — it is a tradition? ?
Cinnamon in Linux Mint 15
Individual users screwed Cinnamon and Linux Mint 12. All this worked well, as you can see in the screenshot below.
Cinnamon 1.4 in Linux Mint 12
Since the first versions began to understand the philosophy of “Cinnamon” — loyalty common to most operating systems (not only for Unices) traditions. Agree, this interface could figure out how experienced linuxoid and Windows user, first moved to “penguin”. Menu — bottom left, familiar to any person of habitual actions cause the same effects… anyway, it looks clear. What could be more important?
Cinnamon in Fedora
Ahem ahem, something Ostap suffered. Back to the history of the shell.
With the Cinnamon version 2.0-the combat almost at the end of 2013-th year, we can consider cinnamon as a full-fledged graphical environment. It was then that it became officially available not only in Linux Mint, but in Fedora EPEL (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux) 7. Of course, other OS, other than Linux Mint craftsmen “cinnamon” was put here before, but we are talking about official support.
Then the number of distributions that support the Cinnamon grew. Not exponentially, but still. For example, version 2.2 (31 may 2014) became available for installation on Debian GNU/Linux 8 “Jessie”. As you probably know, someone who, as members of the Debian project very carefully check all components for stability.
Another screenshot of Linux Mint, this time a more current version
Today is the actual Cinnamon version 4.0, released October 4 last year.
It should be understood that the Cinnamon is, first of all, all the same GTK+ Toolkit different subverse 3 branches. That is, it is based upon GNOME 3. Due to this, as well as intuitive and nastraivaet, cinnamon quickly won the hearts of Linux users. They even put up with its individual shortcomings, which we’ll discuss later.
* * *
Budgie is one of the newest graphical environments of today. It originated as Cinnamon within the development of a separate distribution Evolve OS, renamed within a well known and relevant today, the project Solus.
Appearing on 18 February 2014, the first version of Budgie was quite buggy and extremely poorly optimized GUI (though once with a reasonable claim to the status of a desktop environment), but in future versions the developers, to make efforts, were able to bring their offspring to mind.
The following release version of the shell Budgie was not 1.2, and even 2.0, and that did not seem enough, 10. It was released 27 Dec 2015, and contained a number of substantial improvements.
Solus OS with Budgie DE
I have several times mentioned that the Budgie is the legal successor of GNOME 3. Looking at the screenshot above, you can verify this for themselves. However, the developers Budgie original aim was a kind of rethinking depolymerase users of the philosophy of GNOME 3.**, what today’s Budgie organically combines in itself both elements of the “classical” like in Cinnamon interface and most of the interesting ideas from the Arsenal of his ancestor.
Budgie in Solus OS 3
Story Budgie does not possess the interesting facts, as the shell was, in fact, not so long ago and still not managed to gain the same widespread popularity as the others. Although it still has some distinctive features, and sometimes quite interesting solutions, which allow linuksoidam around the world to watch with interest the development of this wonderful DE.
And what about today?
Modern Cinnamon offers its user all the charm proven over the years on different OS interface: task bar — exactly where you’d expect to see it; the window management, optimization of working space, are performed in exactly the same way as, for example, in Microsoft Windows. The graphical environment is quite well configurable, although worse than other DE.
The main disadvantage of the “cinnamon” personally, I would call excessive consumption of computer resources. For example, 700-900 megabytes of RAM at idle is a normal pattern for Cinnamon. And if you want to add some additional interest and/or activate the services integrate with any cloud storage, be prepared to give the system a Gigabyte of RAM and more.
Of course, this is only my opinion, not pretenduju the truth. The owners of powerful computers have nothing to pay attention to this feature.
* * *
Budgie pleases the user the opportunity to combine innovation with classic. As designed a GUI in the beginning for Solus OS, and then — for the rest of the penguins, I recommend to get acquainted with her in this distribution, download, installation image at this link (version 4.0, Budige DE, 64 bit).
At the same time, many of the features familiar to users of any other graphics environment in Budgie may not be. This is due to the youth and, as a result of “childhood diseases” of the shell, which is still not fully cured.
I am sure that soon all the glitches and inaccuracies of DE will be removed, and it will take its place in the list of the most popular environments. Because the potential is huge.
How to install Cinnamon in Debian GNU/Linux?
1. Debian GNU/Linux
Cinnamon is one of the available for graphics environments at the stage of installing Debian GNU/Linux:
The selection screen of the system components
If you wish to place Cinnamon on an already installed Debian GNU/Linux, run in terminal:
sudo apt install cinnamon
2. Ubuntu and derivatives
Unfortunately (or fortunately), the version with Cinnamon Ubuntu no. However, it can be installed, making sure that you have an active repository “Universe”:
sudo add-apt-repository universe
Now set directly with the “cinnamon” and some additional components:
sudo apt install cinnamon-desktop-environment
3. Linux Mint
Mint fork of Ubuntu. Why I made it a separate code?
The fact that I highly recommend people who want to try Cinnamon to get accustomed to it sootvestvuyushie edition of Linux Mint. There is this GUI looks very organic and shows their advantages and disadvantages, one hundred percent. You will find links to download the installation image on the official website of the project.
It should be noted that Fedora is the editor, where Cinnamon is the default. It is available in the section “Spins” on the official website (at this link).
In order to install Cinnamon on Fedora Linux, run the command-line interface:
sudo dnf groupinstall -y "Cinnamon Desktop"
According to numerous requests of the audience of the website, as an experiment, I decided to make the installation instructions for CentOS and Cinnamon. Don’t know how many in their right mind uses it on his home computer, but if you really really need keep! ?
To install “cinnamon” in CentOS, we must first of all enable the EPEL repository:
sudo yum install epel-release-y
The next command install Cinnamon myself:
sudo yum install cinnamon -y
6. Arch Linux and derivatives
Zoo Arch-like distros have a version with Cinnamon, so I suggest you look at the official website of the beloved system.
In Arch Linux “cinnamon” is available from the official repositories and put command:
sudo pacman -S cinnamon
* * *
How to install Budgie in GNU/Linux?
1. Debian GNU/Linux
During the installation phase of the system we can’t choose a Budgie as a graphical environment. However, this does not mean that from the official repositories we can’t choose! Run in terminal:
sudo apt install budgie-desktop budgie-indicator-applet
2. Ubutnu and derivatives
You can install Budgie Desktop in Ubuntu, using the command:
sudo apt install ubuntu-budgie-desktop
For forks of the same team — the same as in Debian GNU/Linux:
sudo apt install budgie-desktop budgie-indicator-applet
It is not so simple. Although the Internet is not the first month there are rumors of the creation of a Fedora edition of Linux with a Budgie, yet it did not come. For environments we have to use foreign repositories (this is for versions of Fedora 27 and 28, now 29). This report also contains installation instructions.
4. Arch Linux and derivatives
In many Arch-like distributions, as in the case of Cinnamon, there is a corresponding revision.
Dlais Linux Budgie is installed with the command:
sudo pacman -S budgie-desktop
AUR is also available in the latest unstable version. The name of this package budgie-desktop-git.
That brings me to the end of a cycle of materials about the graphical environments GNU/Linux. I really hope some of you they seemed interesting and /or useful.
I would like to mention that there is no such thing as the best graphical environment or the best graphical desktop environment. A large number of available for the free UNIX-like operating systems, DE — is a direct consequence of the huge diversity of the world in General. Each user is necessarily looking for (and finds!) the graphic environment that fully meets their preferences, and uses those programs that allow to efficiently solve tasks.
What kind of environment to work — the choice of everyone!
Thanks to all who were waiting for these materials and read them! Lately I have very little opportunity to write a new article for the website, however, I hope that a majority of users of the site belong to this with understanding.
Well, in the end — a reference to the previous cycle of materials about the graphic environment:
• KDE (Plasma Desktop)
PS As I said earlier, if the interest will be high, perhaps over time we’ll talk about Deepin DE, Enlightment and other non-graphical shell, but so far they haven’t made the necessary prevalence.
Image: from public sources, screenshots of the author
Video: linux made simple