Setting 10 Debian after installation

Debian 10 Buster is the latest LTS version of the Debian operating system. In a previous article I described how to install Debian 10 with the new installer. Although after installation, the system is ready to use, to make it convenient still need to configure many important and not so important parameters.

In this article we will look at how you are configuring Debian 10 after installation. There are so many things to do, we will focus only on the most important ones.

Setup Debian 10 Buster after installation

Step 1. Install sudo

If you used the new installer to install the operating system, the sudo utility you already installed and configured. You can skip this step. But when using the old installer, the system will without sudo and for the comfort of this utility is necessary to install:

Go to console as root with the command:

su -

Then install the utility:

sudo apt install

Next you need to add your current user to the sudo group:

usermod -aG sudo


So the changes into effect you need to logout, then you can use sudo.

Step 2. System update

The sudo utility is, the next step that you should do is to update the system to get all the bug fixes and security issues. To refresh the list of packages and download updates:

sudo apt update

sudo apt upgrade

After updating, restart the computer.

Step 3. Installing vim

All the instructions I recommend to use the vim editor. It is convenient and allows you to edit files very quickly when you get used to it. By default, Debian comes with vi, you need to install vim:

sudo apt install vim

Step 4. Gnome tweak tool

To be able to fine-tune the Gnome desktop should install Gnome Tweak Tool:

sudo apt install gnome-tweak-tool

Step 5. Desktop background

To change the desktop background, you can right click the mouse on any area of the desktop and selecting Change background:

In the opened window, select Background, and then find your favorite picture of the standard or upload your tab Image.

Step 6. Theme

Then you can change the theme. You first need to install the theme such as Numix:

sudo apt install numix-gtk-theme

And if you want a set of icons from Numix:

sudo apt install numix-icon-theme-circle

Then open Gnome Tweak Tool from the main menu tab under appearance and then under Theme -> Application theme need, for example, newly installed:

To change the theme of applications, but the shell you must first open the item Extensions and activate the extension User themes:

After restarting you will be able to choose the shell, but it is also necessary to install.

Step 7. The font size

The size of the font in Debian you can configure, too, through Gnome Tweak Tool. To do this, navigate to Fonts:

Then select the desired scale factor, for example 1,2. Changes are immediately applied, you can poeksperimentirovat ratio to find a comfortable size. Here you can change the font family for the system.

Step 8. The keyboard layout

If during installation you chose the English keyboard layout, you are now in the system you will have only it. To add the Russian open Settings and navigate to Region and language:

Here under input Sources , click + and select Russian:

Next you need to configure a key to change the layout. The default is Win+space, but many got used to Alt+Shift. Open Gnome Tweak Tool, go to the tab Keyboard and mouse, click on the Additional layout options and expand the menu Switch to another layout:

Here select the desired key switch.

Step 9. Additional repositories

Debian repos are divided into two parts – the free – free and not proprietary – nonfree. By default, the second repository is disabled, although added to the system. There is a lot of useful software, including the driver. To enable the repository, open Software & updates from the main menu and on the first tab tick DFSG-compatible and Not DFSG-compatible.

Next, the system will prompt for a password to save the changes.

Step 10. Software installation

The final step instructions for setting up Debian 10 after installation, let’s look at the list of programs that you should install. Most of them are very popular and are used by many users in daily life. All these programs are in the official repositories:

  • vlc is the best media player;
  • gimp – best image editor for Linux;
  • openshot-qt – video editor;
  • avidemux3 – video Converter;
  • synaptic is a powerful package Manager with a graphical interface;
  • chromium-browser – free version of the popular browser Google Chrome;
  • shutter – a utility for creating screen shots;
  • filezilla – FTP client;
  • timeshift – program to backup system;
  • virtualbox – virtual machine;
  • keepassxc – password Manager;
  • remmina – a remote desktop client;
  • htop – task Manager in the terminal;
  • stacer – utility to clean your system;
  • wine – layer for running Windows programs.

sudo apt install vlc gimp openshot-qt avidemux3 synaptic chromium-browser filezilla shutter timeshift virtualbox remmina keepassxc htop stacer wine

If you still need Flash Player Debian, you can install it by running the following commands:

echo "deb buster main contrib" | sudo tee-a /etc/apt/sources.list
deb buster main contrib

sudo apt update

sudo apt install pepperflashplugin-nonfree


To cover all possible settings on Debian is difficult as a lot of them. I deliberately skipped the description of the driver installation, though this is one of the most important items because it will be separate and more detailed articles. We have solved practically all the problems with the system interface and layout, as well as established a basic set of programs that will be helpful to you. What optimization do you Debian after installation? Write in the comments!


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