According to numerous requests of the audience “LinuxTheBest” I decided to create a trilogy of materials, casumina install, configure and use Debian GNU/Linux. Very soon the world will see the tenth version of this marvelous operating system, so I believe that the topic is quite relevant. And we start, of course, with the beginning — with the installation of Debian GNU/Linux on the computer.
In order to install Debian GNU/Linux, we will need:
1. Clean the flash drive with a volume of at least 1GB (ideally 4-8 GB), formatted as FAT32.
2. The software required to burn the ISO image to removable media.
3. Working computer with the installed operating system (any) and Internet connection.
4. The computer on which to install Debian GNU/Linux. Ideally it should be connected to the Internet — for example, to a wired, but it’s not necessary.
5. Another USB flash drive of 1GB or more will be an advantage if you have a computer that we’re about to install my favorite distro on Board working somewhere exotic, or just the latest proprietary hardware. In this case, we will need to install additional non-free driver. In most cases, without this fuss, but still exceptions are possible.
Before you begin the installation of Debian GNU/Linux, I recommend you to read the material about this wonderful operating system!
STEP 1. Download image
First we need to determine what kind of an image file in the format *.iso we need. Here we must proceed from the presence/absence of communication possibilities with the Internet of the computer on which we are going to install Debian GNU/Linux.
General view of the Ukrainian version of the home page Debian
If the access network for any reason, there is no need to download the DVD image, which weighs quite a lot. Therefore, the flash drive need more: one Gigabyte is not enough, there’s at least 4!
Navigate to the appropriate page of the official Debian website and choose the download method that you feel most comfortable. For example, I usually use torrents in order to be able to not only download but also to distribute the image, increasing the speed of access to the file by other users, but it is rather a matter of taste.
Next, we have to understand what our processor architecture. In most cases this will be the version of the image amd64, but if you put the system on a fairly old or low power computer, it is better to use i386.
The Ukrainian version of the page with the link to download
Read more about the differences between amd64 and i386 can be found on the resource “Losst”.
Actually, in the DVD set of Debian GNU/Linux as much as three images of respectively, DVD 1, DVD 2, DVD 3, but for installation you need only the first. It can find the Linux kernel, the basic utilities of the GNU project and other free software like LibreOffice, as well as the graphic environment GNOME, which is for Debian standard.
Please note! The default in Debian GNU/Linux used only free components! In the next article of my series, you will learn how to connect to the system repositories with non-free software and drivers.
If connectivity to the Internet is, it is better to download the minimal installer image. It weighs somewhere in the region of 300-400 MB (if you are reading this article after quite a considerable time after the date of its publication, it may have a little “plumper”, but in any case hardly weighs more 1 GB). As a rule, a direct link to it is on the main page of the Debian website — at the top right corner.
(You can also use the button below if the version that it indicates, at the time of reading the article is still relevant:)
Download Debian 9.8 “Stretch” (stable, amd64, netinst)
STEP 2. Writing the image to a USB flash drive
So you downloaded the image. Regardless DVD whether it is 1 or netinst (minimal), should be burned to the flash drive using your favorite software. How to do it — it is written not in one and probably not in the top ten of the materials on this website and still have this issue as easy to Google.
Etcher — my favorite utility to write the image to flasques 3. Actually, the installation
We now have a flash drive with the image of Debian GNU/Linux. Put it in the computer on which you will be committed to setting and turn on the machine. Our task is to ensure that the computer is not booted from internal media, and just with that drive. How to do this individually for each manufacturer of iron, plus has value also, what firmware version do you have — BIOS or (U)EFI.
Please note! From firmware depends on much more: the type of the partition table on the hard disk, the number, the names of these sections — all different in BIOS and EFI. This material is not intended to tell you all, because in each case (i.e., with each specific manufacturer kompyuternogo hardware) instructions can be found on the Internet. We’re moving on
When run from a flash drive, you will see something like this:
The preloader screen live image
A normal user can simply click “Enter” and get into a pleasant and intuitive interface of graphical installer. But we are not looking for easy ways, besides the graphical installer in a particular incarnation will meet you in the Linux world posolstvo, and better learn to stop being afraid of it now than ever timid when it.
Press the “Down”, choosing “Install” and press “Enter”.
I also want to note that most of the installation steps in a graphical and menu-based installers the overlap.
The language selection dialog
The first screen asks us to select a language at the same time for the installer and for the future system. Moving through the menu with the arrow keys, select the one which is most comfortable. Hit “Enter” when finished. Try to remember the primary keys that will be used during the installation process: arrow, “Eneter”, space and “Tab”.
The choice of the country
The following dialog prompts you to select our geographical location. It is necessary to set local standards like time, currency, calendar and so on. Here we should also choose their country arrows and press “Enter”.
The keyboard layout
Now is the time to choose the keyboard layout that will be used by default. I will emphasize that in the case of Debian GNU/Linux is absolutely safe to choose your local locale: “Latin” will always be available as an alternative layout. However, in many distributions, including even a fork of the Debian GNU/Linux, at this stage, it is better to choose the English keyboard, because then we have to fill in fields that do not support the Cyrillic alphabet.
Now just select your national keyboard, and press “Enter”. The next step allows us to choose how to switch between local and Latin layout:
Choose any option!
Immediately after pressing “Enter” will start uploading the basic prerequisites. It does not take much time — a maximum of fifteen.
When the process is over, we will be asked to enter a name for this computer. This is the value that the CLI is after the “utility” (“@”). Use only Latin characters!
Enter the name of the computer
The next screen is “domain Name” — home users typically ignore. So just leave the corresponding field empty and press “Enter”.
“The domain name” leave blank
And now we are asked to enter the administrator password of the computer, a root password. Here one should stop for a second. The fact is that if we introduce the root password, a normal user (our account that we’re about to create) will not get root privileges, and the utility sudo is generally not installed. Thus, whenever we need to make any significant changes in the organization of the operating system — for example, to install/remove software or edit configuration files, you will have to switch to root user and act on his behalf.
To enter or not to enter — that is the question!
So, it depends on you whether to enter this password. I recommend you leave this field (and the “Confirm password”) is empty, especially if you’re new, for manual install sudo and add yourself root privileges — a dubious pleasure.
Or leave empty, or repeat the same password entered earlier
By the way, all the dialogues create a password in the installer have the feature of showing the plaintext password. In order to activate it, quite a few times to press “Tab” until it is this field not highlighted in red, then press “Space” key (as if to “mark” this item, to put it a tick). When you are finished, press “Enter”.
Now we will create a user. As you know, whether it will receive privileges to perform administrative actions — depends on your decision in the previous step. In the meantime, just enter the user’s full name (full). Here we are free to use whatever characters, such as Cyrillic:
To call the user “User” — the pinnacle of originality, I think ?
By clicking “Enter”, get into a dialogue again, create a username, but this time — system. Only lowercase Latin letters plus some special characters like dashes are allowed here.
Something like that
Now, enter the user password, the password that will be used to perform administrative tasks using sudo, if you left the root password blank. I recommend not to use such a password, like in the picture below:
Not the most secure password, right?
Confirm the password entered:
Screens passwords very typical
Now — most importantly: we will format the hard drive and create on it sections!
This dialogue often enters into a stupor beginners
Specifically in this article, I will allow myself to recommend you to use the item “in — use entire disk” for about how to create partitions, much has been written, including “LinuxTheBest”. But please note that I describe installing it on a clean hard disk without any important files and/or any other OS on it!
If you have multiple hard disks, the system prompts you to select the one that is installed:
In my menu only one item
Further automation would offer us the option to create a single partition for all files and directories or to allocate a separate partition for /home — the place where you will store all of your files. Despite the fact that in the setup wizard the first option is recommended for beginners, I still recommend you the second paragraph, create a separate partition for user files:
Select “Separate partition for /home”
In this case, you can not only painless to to access all of your files if the operating system decides in the future with something to the end, but also to change a single GNU/Linux distribution to another without having to make backups of your home directory on removable media.
The screen that will arise after you press Enter, will show how divided our hard drive:
Arrows select the bottom item and hit “Enter”
Now we are again to confirm the change of file system in your hard disk. Debian GNU/Linux cares about your safety and this is why ten times asks, whether all right.
Keys to select “Yes”
Now you can sit back in the armchair and drink tea: began installing the base system. At this stage, we still never used the Internet, even if installed with “minimal” image. But soon we will have some trouble with him.
Unpacking the base system
After that, a dialog window will appear asking you to scan other images Debian GNU/Linux, if any. Select “No” press “Enter”.
Although, of course, can scan if you wish
Well, now the Internet setup. If the network connection you have and you use to install Debian GNU/Linux image DVD 1, you will soon suggest not to configure the Internet in General. And while the instructions are universal. For example, you first select the country with mirrors, where we in the future to install and update the system.
Choose your country!
Now quickly determine which mirror you seems the most reliable. I usually leave the biggest is that the image highlighted in red:
The most reliable repository
But you can choose any local mirror. The fastest ones are at the top of the list.
Please note! Somewhere on these installation steps in the case of a proprietary computer adapter, Wi-Fi and, as a consequence, because of the impossibility of installation of the corresponding driver for it, as that being not-free, you will be prompted to insert the computer additional the flash drive that the system searches for the driver. What’s more, she you, and tell you what driver it lacks, so if you have a working computer with an active Internet connection you can download from the official repository of required packages with their dependencies.
After this, press “Enter”.
Now we are asked to enter information about the proxy server. The average user it’s useless — press the “Enter” immediately, leaving the field blank.
If a proxy is required, enter it
If no additional problems will not arise, now the installer to configure the network connection and it will create the configuration file for the package Manager apt, which is Debian GNU/Linux standard:
It does not take much time
And the following dialogue is the subject of heated debate and long srach on the forums!
Say Debian GNU/Linux is kind of like spying on the user, but anyone who carefully read what is asked by the system would understand the absurdity of this assumption. You will be asked whether you want to take an anonymous part in the rankings of popularity of those or other packets that future developers know what is popular and what is not so:
You can select “No”, although “Yes” is a more logical option because so you can help the project
If you have paranoia, click “No.”
But the answer is “Yes” will help volunteers from the team of the Debian project to determine the programs that will be included in next releases. That is, choosing “Yes”, you are helping the project. The decision is up to you.
It’s time to understand how it will look and act our system. Choose the software (and the graphical environment with it). Probably a good idea to remind you that for switching the active areas of the screen press “Tab” for marking list items — space bar. “Debian desktop environment” is GNOME the same way.
All the available sets of packages
When you are finished, press “Enter”.
Installation has begun!
The main stage of the installation can take quite a long time: it all depends on the number selected in the previous dialog group package. If you naklatsal all points, be prepared to wait about an hour. Therefore, I recommend to choose only one graphical environment.
The installation of Debian GNU/Linux is finished. In the last dialog you will be asked to remove the flash drive from the computer, and then you will get the option to reboot into your new OS!
In the following article of a trilogy about the installation and configuration of Debian GNU/Linux, I’ll tell you how to install the system without a graphical environment, then as thinly as possible to fit your needs. Also I’ll tell you what, the first settings producing I have just installed Debian GNU/Linux: perhaps these tips will be helpful to you!
Did you manage to install Debian GNU/Linux? Share with us in the comments!
Image: from public sources, screenshots of the author